Camping areas

Outdoor and indoor sport and recreation settings vary considerably in their design, size, use and location, from the venue for a chess game, to a football ground.

This section contains principles that can be interpreted and adapted to suit the outdoor recreation setting of camping areas.

This setting is described in terms of its role and use, outlining design principles to consider and to support use by everyone. Universal design key requirements and minimum standard access dimensions for specific elements relating to facilities and installations are provided for design that will assist in maximising the effective use of all areas.

The universal design key requirements have been developed as an easy to access checklist of issues to consider and the minimum access dimensions are based on the Australian Standards for Access and Mobility. While these Standards relate to the requirements of people with a range of access challenges and disabilities, they often generally improve access for all people.

Camping areas

Camping areas are located in many parts of Australia, from urban areas to state, territory and national parks.

Camping areas can incorporate a variety of sites and facilities. These can include residential camps, holiday resorts, camp grounds, holiday rental accommodation, caravan park cabins and natural bush settings. Camping areas can also be targeted towards different age groups, for example, schools camps for children or caravan parks catering for retirees. Access to all of these areas and the facilities that are provided is important for everyone.


 

An overhead view of a universally designed camping areaFigure 1: An example of a camping area

  1. An appropriate number of accessible cabins should be provided
  2. All elements within camping areas should be connected via a continuous accessible path of travel, for example car parking, toilets, buildings, play areas, drinking fountains, seating, power connections etc.

Design principles

The following key design principles should be considered when developing or upgrading camping areas.

Connections

All elements within camping areas should be connected via a continuous accessible path of travel, for example, car parking, toilets, buildings, play areas, drinking fountains, seating and power connections. These should be linked so that anyone can easily move to and through all of these and enjoy the location and the facilities to the maximum extent.

Approach

Camping areas require approach routes for both vehicles and pedestrians. These should be well signed with entry points that users can easily find. Use of environmental or architectural cues, a line of trees leading to the entry or similar structures that identify the entry points can assist.

Parking spaces for vehicles of various size and use, including cars, mini-buses and bicycles should be provided in any onsite car parking area. Consideration should be given to vehicles with side and rear loading capacity for people who may be using mobility aids, as well as enough overhead clearance to load and upload items stored on a vehicle’s roof.

Shade and shelter over some parking bays that may be used by people who take a little longer to enter or exit their vehicle are also useful. These bays should be located as close as possible to the entry of the park or garden. The ground surface of the parking area, particularly at designated accessible parking bays, should be level and free from loose material. Use of trees or shrubs that drop foliage or seed pods should be avoided.

An uninterrupted path of travel, free from any hazards or difficult or uneven terrain, should lead users from the car park to the entry point/s of the park or garden.

Drop-off areas that can cater for a variety of vehicles, for example, buses, taxis or cars, should also be provided as close to the principal entry points as possible.

Entry points

Entry points should be easily identifiable and incorporate effective contrasts to the background area. Points of entry, including site, path, fields of play and building entrances, should be wide enough to cater for the access needs of all users. This includes people using mobility aids such as twin prams, scooters or wheelchairs and, for example, an adult with a child who is walking, but who needs to be held by the hand or a person with an assistance animal. Other users could be people carrying bags, cases and equipment.

Consideration should also be given to the type and weight of any gates or doors that may need to be used, to ensure they are not too heavy or difficult to operate.

Latches that can be used easily with one hand that are located at a low height for ease of use by a smaller person or someone using a wheelchair are important. Entry points that incorporate turnstiles, chicanes, or queuing lines can be difficult for some people to manage and alternatives such as clear doorway entrances should be provided. Appropriate access through security gates, particularly during a temporary festival or event in the park or garden, should also be considered.

Paths

Continuous, accessible paths of travel free from obstacles should be provided. They should incorporate alternatives to steps, be firm, stable and slip resistant and avoid excessive slopes and crossfalls whenever possible. Ramps with appropriate gradients, kerbs, handrails and landing and resting points should be provided where slopes cannot be avoided. Paths should incorporate clear lines of sight at key decision making points, as well as visible and textural indication of any hazards, particularly at any location where there may be a pedestrian and vehicle conflict.

Paths should be wide enough for people to easily pass each other when coming from opposite directions. The width of the pathway should be considered in light of the number of expected users, for example, in areas that attract many people, pathways should be wide enough to allow groups of people to pass each other, including users of a range of mobility aids such as prams, walking frames and wheelchairs.

Landscape design

Landscape elements can include paths and garden beds, plants, trees, shrubs and camp sites as well as statues, sculptures, water features and a variety of other landscape elements. These are all key components of many camping areas.

Consideration should be given to location, access, interpretation, usability and the safety of everyone. Limitations to mobility, vision, hearing and interpretation needs of both children and adults should be taken into account.

Key design issues to consider are outlined below:

  • the selection and use of trees with foliage that does not overhang paths and drop branches, seed pods, berries or bark, which can create barriers for all users
  • use of landscaping design and elements to assist with wayfinding, for example:
  • planting of shade trees and plants with different aromas and sounds that can assist users with wayfinding through the area as well as enhance the ambience of the space and create a sense of wellbeing
  • a large sculpture near the entry of a building that can act as a key wayfinding element to assist users to find their way to the entry point
  • consistent use of lightly textured paving, across a pathway to identify the direction to a viewing or seating area which assists people with limitations to vision and other people when looking for somewhere to rest
  • easy to find and follow paths of travel created by the use of low growing plants along path edges, to features such as statues or water fountains and other key viewing elements
  • installation of interesting engagement points such as a maze or labyrinth, to encourage exploration and ‘safe’ risk taking
  • installation of sculptures and structures that can be ‘felt’ as well as ‘seen’
  • incorporating interesting seating designs, with backs and armrests, within landscape structures
  • effective maintenance of sight lines, particularly in areas where key decision making is required, in isolated locations where personal safety could be compromised, or near any family use areas such as play spaces.

Installations

Installations such as litter bins, seating, lighting, drinking fountains (incorporating a low height dog bowl), dog dropping collection points and other installations must be usable by everyone. These should be located off, but connected to, a continuous, accessible path of travel. People should be able to easily approach, reach and use the installations.

All installations should incorporate low height, easy to use controls that can be reached by a smaller person. They should incorporate adequate leg clearance underneath to accommodate someone who is seated. Consideration of the angles of approach and clear space for a person to move around the installations is also important.

Controls with large push buttons that protrude or extend beyond the surrounding surface or with levers are usually easier to use. Avoid any controls that require a person to use fine motor skills like ‘one pointed finger’ or that require a constant pressure to operate. The ability for one handed operation is preferred. Sensor operated controls that activate by sensing movement underneath or close to the installation also support ease of use.

The use of effective colour and luminance contrast to adjacent and background surfaces on installations and elements within installations will make them easier to identify and also assist with understanding how they are used.

Picnic and rest areas

Rest and picnic areas should include seating with backs and armrests, tables with extended ends or clear spaces to allow for a person using a wheelchair to move underneath or to clip on a child restraint.

Barbecues must be useable by everyone with controls at the front of the hot plate. This ensures they are easy to reach and eliminates the need for people to reach over the top of the hot plate.

A level bench top next to the hotplate, made from glare free, heat resistant material, allows a person to move hot pans and other items easily on and off the hot plate, without the need to lift heavy items.

Barbecues should be located off, but connected to, a continuous accessible path of travel, as well as being close to other important facilities such as toilets and play spaces.

Shade and shelter should be provided over some of these areas so that, depending on weather conditions, people can choose what will best suit their needs.

Where picnic and rest areas incorporate structures, such as a rotunda, there should be level or step free access available, as an alternative to stairs.

Companion animal free zones

While it is important for users of service or assistance animals (animals that have been trained to perform tasks that assist people with disabilities) to have equitable access to recreation reserves, consideration should be given to areas where companion animals (pets) are restricted to leads. Older people and young children can become anxious when approached by free running companion animals that may trip or injure them. Some people will also have allergies to animals and will benefit from being able to use areas free from direct contact with companion animals.

Buildings

All buildings should be located on a continuous accessible path of travel from the car parking and pedestrian entry points of the park or garden. They should provide level, step free entry with no revolving doors or turnstiles and with wide door openings to accommodate all users, including people with mobility aids such as prams, strollers, wheelchairs or assistance animals. Self opening doors are preferred, with effective contrasts across any glass doors or areas that could be mistaken for a doorway, to ensure that the safety of users is not compromised.

Consideration should also be given to shelter close to, but not obstructing the principal entries, where some people may wish to store mobility aids while using the building.

Wide internal walkways and doorways, clear of any obstructions on the floor surface and walls, and areas to pass easily are important. Level, slip resistant floor surfaces - in both wet and dry conditions - that do not incorporate any lips or tripping hazards should be maintained.

Access into each room of the building is necessary so that users can participate in all activities and utilise required facilities. Fixtures and fittings that can be accessed by a smaller person or a child, as well as someone who is seated are necessary, for example, at customer service counters and information and display areas.

Any controls that are required to operate building elements such as lights or doors, should be easy to grip, see, reach and operate, and be supplemented with clear, concise instructions for use where necessary. Tese instructions should be provided in a range of formats, for example, written, audio and tactile to ensure that all users can effectively interpret the information provided.

In multiple level buildings, either ramps with appropriate gradients, or lifts, should be provided to upper levels to support ease of use and movement. These should be easy to locate, with consideration given to the use of effective contrasts as well as raised tactile and Braille signage. Lifts should incorporate buttons that include raised tactile elements as well as Braille close to the buttons to support effective interpretation and wayfinding. Audio announcements should also be installed to identify floor levels.

Any stairs should incorporate effective contrast nosings on the stair treads. Stairs and ramps require easy to grip handrails and tactile ground surface indicators at the top and bottom.

Hearing augmentation should be provided in any buildings where people may meet, for example, to begin a guided walk through the park or garden, or where there are interactive displays that people can listen to. Captions on screens for people who may have limitations to hearing, as well as audio or tactile alternatives for people who may have limitations to vision should also be considered. Good lighting is necessary for all users.

Any buildings that incorporate kitchen or dining areas should provide ease of access for everyone and incorporate a range of tables and seating heights and types for children and adults. Tables with extended ends so a person using a wheelchair can move underneath, lower height or adjustable benches, leg clearances under fixtures such as sinks and benches and access to taps, cupboards and equipment should all be considered.

Toilets and change rooms

If toilets and change rooms are provided they should be available for use by everyone. In addition to male and female areas, unisex accessible toilets, showers and change rooms are required as these can be effectively used by children as well as adults and carers, including people with a range of access challenges. Key elements to consider include:

  • located on a continuous accessible path of travel from the car parking and pedestrian entry points
  • adequate room size and circulation space
  • wide door opening, with a sliding door where possible
  • easy to see and use door occupied indicator, handle and flushing control
  • appropriate grab rails at the side and back of the toilet pan
  • appropriate toilet pan distance from the side and rear wall
  • toilet paper that is easily reached from the pan
  • soap dispenser and hand dryer that are easily reached from the hand basin
  • hand basin at an accessible height with appropriate leg clearance underneath
  • baby change table where space allows
  • adjustable height shower head
  • non -slip shower seat with legs for support
  • grab rails on walls of shower
  • level, slip resistant floor surfaces in both wet and dry conditions
  • adult change table with a hoist
  • interconnecting change spaces with a lockable door in between
  • facilities for both left and right handed users
  • provision of ambulant accessible facilities that are useful for people who use mobility aids such as prams and strollers.

Family change rooms

In addition to male and female and unisex accessible toilets and change facilities, consideration should be given to the installation of some family change rooms to support use by families with several young children.

Key elements to consider include:

  • baby change table
  • accessible children's toilet
  • accessible shower large enough for two people, for example, adult and child
  • shower seat with legs for support
  • adjustable height shower head.

Adult accessible change room

In addition to male, female and unisex accessible toilets and change facilities, consideration should be given to the installation of some private accessible adult change rooms. These will support use by adults with access challenges who may need assistance with changing.

Key elements to consider include:

  • accessible shower
  • accessible adult change table
  • hoist
  • accessible hand basin and dryer.

 

Play spaces

Access to play spaces for both children and adults is important. Play provides important motivation for children to become active, engage with others, extend themselves and adapt and learn skills. There are many physical, social, cognitive and emotional benefits that accrue from play.

Many grandparents with access challenges as well as parents or other supervising adults will accompany children to play spaces. Many people will be using mobility aids such as prams and strollers and others may also use wheelchairs, scooters or assistance animals. Good access is important for everyone.

Passive play spaces as well as play structures for climbing, balancing, hanging, running, swinging, rocking and rolling, should all be considered. Access to and through each element is important and supports both cognitive and social play experiences. Some key elements of play spaces include:

  • multipurpose play activities such as sand diggers, climbing equipment, ball courts, cubbies or swings
  • interesting places or surfaces that suggest particular games or encourage activities such as rolling, hiding or running
  • vegetation, sand or loose materials that invite building, collecting or creative imaginative play
  • elements that provide acceptable risk, changes in surfaces and sensory elements that include tactile, audible and components with scent or smell
  • maintenance of clear sightlines to assist with supervising children.

Infrastructure that supports users of play spaces such as direct access to toilets, drinking fountains, seats at various heights, shade and shelter over viewing areas is also important.

Consideration should be given to the size and location of the play space and the target audience that it is intended to service when designing the play space. This will assist in determining what elements should be included and what structures, installations and access supports should be provided.

Water

The availability of drinking water for both people and animals is important. Children and adults as well as people using assistance animals will require access to drinking fountains, bowls or other ways of obtaining drinking water. Drinking fountains that are easy to reach, have large lever handles for operation, and incorporate a low level drinking bowl for an assistance animal, support access for everyone. A firm slip resistant surface around the installation to support access is also important.

Wayfinding and information

A successful wayfinding system should minimise anxiety and confusion, should be easy to understand and allow for everyone to equitably access all information provided. Wayfinding relies on a succession of communication cues provided throughout an environment. Cues may be visual, audible or tactile.

A visual way finding system incorporating cues such as architecture, landscape design, fountains, flagpoles, lighting, landmarks and other orientation points should be developed for the park or garden.

Signage is also a critical key element of an effective way finding system.

Signs and information about key features including walking trails, places of interest, interactive elements and components of the area, as well as the location of car parking, toilets and buildings must be freely available in a range of formats, so that people can prepare to enjoy the park or garden they are visiting. Consideration should be given to four different types of signs:

  • identification
  • information
  • directional
  • safety or regulatory, prohibition and advisory.

It is important to ensure that everyone can effectively interpret and use these different types of signage within the environment.

Accessible signage incorporates the positive elements of traditional signage as well as alternatives such as Braille and tactile and audio elements and gives consideration to a number of other key components that impact on accessibility and usability. When designing accessible signage, consideration should be given to the following:

  • language
  • location
  • content
  • typeface or font
  • letter spacing
  • size of letters
  • appropriate symbols
  • tactile and Braille
  • contrast and colour
  • illumination
  • alternatives to traditional signage, for example, audio.

Signage incorporating the international symbol of access and or deafness should be used to identify accessible elements where appropriate.

Lighting

Effective, glare free lighting should be provided throughout areas that are likely to be used at night. This can include pathways, seating, building entrances and exits as well as areas that may pose a safety risk, such as at pedestrian and vehicle conflict areas, stairs and ramps.

Camp sites

Car parking, if provided next to the camp site, should incorporate a firm, level and slip resistant surface with a continuous accessible path of travel to the site, tent and other required facilities, for example, toilets, showers, water, cooking areas and power.

Camping sites should be level and with a solid, stable surface. A firm, grassed area for a tent should be provided next to and flush with the main area of the site.

Sites should be free from overhanging branches or other potentially hazardous elements such as long grass, seed pods, bark or leaf litter or insect mounds. Ideally, camping sites should be protected to some degree from sun, rain and winds and shade or shelter should be provided over some sites.

The edges of the camp site should be well defined with a contrasting texture, colour change or vegetation to assist with boundary identification (if necessary) and wayfinding.

Facilities and furniture

Facilities and furniture provided in camping areas should be located on a continuous accessible path of travel connected to camp sites. These can include toilets, camp buildings, including kitchens and laundries, kiosks, recreation and meeting areas, as well as installations such as post boxes, seats and tables, litter bins, drinking fountains and fire hoses.

Facilities and furniture should be designed so that they are usable by everyone, with consideration given to accessible locations, height, types of controls, entry points and easy to interpret information for operation in a range of formats.

Cabins

Where on-site accommodation such as cabins is provided, these should be designed to consider the needs of everyone including young families, older adults and users with particular access challenges. Level, step free entry points with wide doorways, handles, light switches and other controls that are easy to see, reach and operate, as well as enough circulation space internally for prams and other mobility aids are required.

Consideration should also be given to fixtures and fittings that are easy to reach and use and that provide appropriate clearances and heights for everyone, for example, cupboards and wardrobes as well as taps with lever handles, accessible toilets with multiple seat height options, and showers with level entry and grabrails will assist children as well as adults.

Kitchen benches and sinks with leg clearances underneath for ease of use for someone who may be seated and large grip kitchen utensils and large print remote control units for equipment such as televisions and lamps will assist all users.

Slip resistant floor surfaces that offer suitable traction are important and effective lighting should be provided to cater for a variety of needs.

Emergency exit

Emergency exits should be provided along a continuous accessible path of travel to a nominated assembly area from all rooms within a building or pathways within the site. Consideration must be given to all users including children, older adults and people using a range of aids such as prams, wheelchairs, hearing aids, assistance animals and white canes.

Fire extinguishers should be easy to reach for everyone and incorporate clear instructions for use.

Both visible and audible emergency alarms should be installed in buildings and around the site to assist all users as well as a public address system for use by the fire service to assist in directing people along the most accessible path of travel given the building or site condition at any one time.

Emergency exits and paths of travel should be kept clear of obstructions at all times. Equipment and other items stored in buildings should not create any barriers.

Evacuation maps should be installed at accessible heights, be easy to read and available in alternative formats to assist all building and site users.

An emergency evacuation plan that addresses the needs of all building and site users should be developed and practised during evacuation drills.

Camping areas – Checklist of key elements

Consideration must be given to universal design in camping areas relating to a wide range of key elements. In relation to camping areas, the key elements include:

Paths of travel

Car parking, set down and waiting

Entrances and exits

Building and facilities

Toilets, showers and change rooms

Aquatic recreation areas

Installations

Communication and information

Specialist recreation elements

Cabins

Key requirements

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for cabins must be read in conjunction with key requirements and key access dimensions for all buildings and all installations.

General

  • A continuous accessible path of travel from the site entry to and through any cabin.
  • Clear easy to read signage including large print and tactile number and name at the entrance.
  • Wide, level doorways with circulation space provided both sides of the door, which consider angles of approach.
  • Consistent and even lighting at the entrance door.
  • Shade and shelter over the entrance door.
  • Easy access storage areas that support larger items, for example, child's bike and mobility aids.
  • Remote controls for heating, cooling, TV and DVD that can be accessed by all people, for example, an adult, child or person sitting.
  • Controls on doors, appliances, equipment, fire alarms and extinguishers, lighting, power outlets and other installations that can be reached by a person
  • when standing or seated and used with a closed fist or open palm and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare).

Bedroom

  • Choices of bed types, for example, single or double.
  • Space around the ends and side of the bed for ease of access.
  • Easy to move furniture.
  • Adjustable height and easy to move bed with clearance underneath for the legs of a hoist if required.
  • Remote controls for appliances, for example, TV, DVD, CD player, air conditioner and lights in an easy to reach location.
  • Light switches and television controls that are within easy reach of the bed.
  • Television that incorporates closed captioning.
  • Telephone with volume control and large print buttons within reach of the bed.
  • Wardrobe hanging rails and shelving that are height adjustable.
  • Storage area for mobility aids, for example, shopping jeep, baby car seat or wheelchair.
  • Windows with easy to use winders that can be accessed from a standing or seated position.
  • Large windows to maximise the view particularly for a person when seated.
  • Talking or large print alarm clock.
  • Air conditioning or heating that can be adjusted easily and that is not located directly over or next to any bed.

Kitchen

  • Clear manoeuvring spaces between sink, benches and tables.
  • Low height kitchen sink and benches with appropriate clearance around and underneath.
  • Automated, cordless appliances, for example, kettle.
  • Tea and coffee making facilities that can be accessed from a seated position.
  • Appliances, stoves or cook tops that have easy to use controls at the front or side and can be accessed from a standing or seated position
  • Appliances with large print instructions and controls.
  • Ignition burners on stoves that align with adjoining or neighbouring benches.
  • Lever or sensor controls on taps.
  • Large, easy grip utensils.
  • Drawers or open fronted storage space and shallow shelves with appropriate clearance within and under any pantry or food storage cupboard.

Bathroom

  • Accessible toilet and shower (if provided within cabin).

Key access dimensions

  • A continuous accessible pedestrian path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high (1980mm at doorways) and 1000mm wide to and through the cabin.
  • Signage installed within appropriate 'Zones for Viewing' in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Minimum 850mm clear opening width at doorways and circulation space on both sides of doors that considers angles of approach.
  • A minimum space of 2250mm x 2250mm (2450mm x 2450mm preferred) to manoeuvre a wheelchair easily around all areas of the rooms.
  • A minimum 1600mm x 2350mm circulation space (in a two walled shower enclosure), 1600mm x 2500mm (in a three walled enclosure) with appropriate wet areas and fittings
  • installed at appropriate heights – note spaces may overlap with toilet circulation space as appropriate.
  • Toilets with 1900mm x 2300mm to a height of 2000mm minimum pan circulation space incorporating appropriate fixtures and fitting installation in any accessible toilet.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Lighting installed to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Table 17: Relevant Australian Standards for cabins

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009 

Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work

AS 1428.2 - 1992 Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS/NZS 4586 – 2004Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS 4299 - 1995Adaptable Housing
AS 1680 – 2009Interior Lighting – Safe Movement
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information

Camp sites

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for camp sites must be read in conjunction with key requirements and key access dimensions for all buildings and all installations.

Key requirements

  • Continuous accessible path of travel between entry points, camp site and all buildings, facilities and installations.
  • Clear, easy to read signage at the entry to the camping area incorporating relevant international symbols of access or deafness, that can easily be read by a person when standing or seated and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Firm, level and slip resistant ground surfaces in both wet and dry conditions at the camp site.
  • Power source that is easy to access and has appropriate circulation space, controls and instructions for use.
  • Accessible seating and tables located close to the camp site.
  • Shade and shelter over the camp site (where possible) and any seating, tables.
  • Easy access to drinking water at or close to the camp site.
  • Access to appropriate toilets and showers for all users including people with mobility challenges, for example, ambulant and unisex accessible toilets and showers.

Key access dimensions

  • A continuous accessible path of travel (that is a minimum 1000mm wide and 2000mm high) from the property entrance and car park to and around any camp site, with pathway connections between related facilities, for example, seating, tables, toilets and showers.
  • Signage installed within appropriate 'Zones for Viewing' in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Power outlet point 600mm - 1100mm high that has appropriate circulation space around it to accommodate angles of approach, for example, side on or front on (minimum 800mm x 1300mm).
  • Seating with backs and armrests (220mm - 300mm above the seat) at a height of 350mm - suitable for children, 450mm - for general public use and 520mm - for older adults.

Table 18: Relevant Australian Standards for camp sites

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009 Design for Access and Mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for Access and Mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS/NZS 4586 - 2004 Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS 1158 - 2010 Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces

Links to other relevant information

Power outlets to camp sites

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for power outlets to camp sites must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

  • Coin feed points that are easy to see and reach and alternatives to these where possible.
  • Safety switch installed to the power outlet.

Key access dimensions

  • 600mm - 1100mm high power outlet point.
  • Coin feed slots 800mm – 900mm high.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.

Table 39: Relevant Australian Standards for power outlets to camp sites

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for Access and Mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for Access and Mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 1158 - 2010 Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces

Links to other relevant information

Seating and tables

Seating and tables may be required at a range of locations. Seating in parks and along pathways for example, should incorporate a range of seats with backs and arm rests with various seat heights to supports both children and adults. These seats should also incorporate an adjacent wheelchair space so that people can move off a path of travel and sit with others using the seats.

Accessible seating and wheelchair seating spaces should be integrated with other seating to ensure everyone including family, friends or carers can sit together and enjoy the event.

Seats should incorporate backs and arm rests as well as adjacent wheelchair spaces. Spaces for people using wheelchairs should not be segregated from other people and should not be provided in one location only. A variety of seating options should be available at a number of locations. Clear lines of sight should be maintained from all seating to allow for ease of viewing of the installation or activity that is taking place.

Picnic tables located on a firm, level and slip resistant ground surface that provide a variety of access points, for exampe, end or side, are also important. A continuous accessible path of travel is required to accessible seating and tables.

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for seating and tables must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

  • Seating and tables that are installed at regular intervals with co-located facilities (for example, rubbish bins and bike racks).
  • Various heights of seats suitable for all people including older adults and children which are free of materials that can splinter.
  • Seating with backs and armrests of various configuration (for example, one armrest, armrests either ends and central armrest).
  • Seating and table materials that do not retain heat or cold.
  • Seating and tables that incorporate clear, level circulation space that allows room for the placement of items, for example, a pram to rest, dog to sit or a person using a wheelchair to sit next to a seat.
  • Additional 'overflow' seating incorporated into landscaped areas, for example, walls.
  • Movable seating provided at reception, restaurant, kiosks, recreation facilities, retail areas and in accessible showers, incorporating backs and armrests. 
  • Wheelchair seating spaces provided where fixed seating is available.
  • A change of texture or ground surface colour at seating and tables to designate the area.
  • Tables that have rounded edges and that are free from materials that can splinter.
  • Tables incorporating an extended end with adequate space for a person to move in underneath when seated.
  • Where fixed seating is installed at tables, space at one end or side of the table for a person to easily move in and underneath, if using a wheelchair.
  • Accessible spectator seating and wheelchair spaces at a variety of locations within relevant buildings and facilities, so users can sit with family and friends. 

Key access dimensions

 

An example of how to connect seating and a table to a pathway.Figure 2: Seating and table connected to a pathway

  1. Seating that incorporates clear, level circulation space that allows room for the placement of items, for example, pram to rest, dog to sit or a person using wheelchair to sit next to a seat
  2. Seating with backs and armrests (220mm – 300mm above the seat) for example, at a height of 350mm – suitable for children, 450mm – general public use, 520mm –for older adults
  3. Tables incorporating an extended end with adequate space for a person to move in underneath when seated
  4. Seating connected to, but back from a path by a minimum of 500mm

  • Seating installed at a minimum of 60m intervals along pathways.
  • Minimum 900mm between seating and tables that are placed side by side.
  • Various heights of seating between 450mm - 520mm with backs and armrests (top installed 220mm -300mm above seat) - 450mm for adults and 520mm for older adults. If children are expected to be a primary user, a seat height of 350mm will assist.
  • Landscaped seating at least 300mm wide with an overhang of 100mm to allow a person to place their heels on the ground when getting up from the seat.
  • Fixed wheelchair seating spaces provided and located within a facility that meet the size and ratio of the space served in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • A minimum circulation space of 1500mm around a table to allow a person to manoeuvre easily.
  • Minimum depth of 620mm under a table for a person using a wheelchair and if two spaces are located opposite on the same table, the table needs to be at least 1240mm deep with a height under the table a minimum of 800mm.

Table 40: Relevant Australian Standards for seating and tables

NameTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

Links to other relevant information

Shade and shelter

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for shade and shelter must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

Shade and shelter, both above and around (vertical and horizontal), to protect all users from extremes of weather at the following external installations:

  • accessible car parking
  • ball courts
  • barbecues
  • bicycle storage and racks
  • camp sites
  • entrances to buildings and facilities
  • notice boards
  • outdoor seating
  • pathways leading to customer service areas
  • play spaces
  • spectator seating
  • swimming pools and spas
  • transport set down and waiting areas
  • vending machines
  • viewing areas.
  • Use the natural environment where possible, for example, bushes, large stable rocks, shrubs that do not drop excessive debris.
  • Pathways that extend beyond the areas of shade ensure the flow of pedestrian traffic is not interrupted.
  • Maintain a clear path of travel through any shelter or infrastructure.
  • Shade and shelter points to be connected to paths of travel to provide appropriate access.
  • Shade and shelter points to consider the size and space requirements of all users, for example, parents with prams, a person with an assistance animal or using a wheelchair.

Key access dimensions

  • A minimum 2000mm overhead clearance on any path of travel where shade or shelter is provided.

Table 41: Relevant Australian Standards for shade and shelter

NameTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work

AS 1428.2 - 1992

Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

Links to other relevant information

All installations
Access awareness handbooks
Good Play Space Guide: "I can play too" (pdf, 1.42 MB)
Universal Design New York 2

Landscape design

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for landscape design must be considered in addition to those for all installations particularly as they relate to landscape installations, for example, sculptures, arbours, water features or other structures.

Key requirements

  • Signage indicating key landscaping elements that are available for people to experience, for example, sculptures, arbours and garden beds.
  • A continuous accessible path of travel from any car park, public transport and taxi set down area and property boundary through any landscaping elements along pathways.
  • Entrances and pathways that are free from plant and tree droppings, leaves, seed pods, bark or any plants that attract insects or have prickles and thorns.
  • Garden beds with raised sections to support access for all users, whether they're standing or seated.
  • Landscaping elements that do not drop excessive debris to be used to shade key elements in outdoor areas, for example, play spaces and seating.
  • Landscaping elements along pathways and around elements that do not encroach into lines of sight for users of the area, for example, children, an older adult, or a person who is deaf.
  • Landscaping elements incorporating an effective contrast between vertical and horizontal surfaces and background and adjacent surfaces, for example, raised garden beds and plant surrounds.
  • Adequate overhead and side clearance along pathways ensuring no landscape elements or installations encroach, for example, on sculptures, arbours, garden and water fountains.
  • Landscaping elements and installations that consider and assist with way finding, for example, colour and scent cues, structures at entry and exit points, and defined pathway edgings.
  • Change of ground surface colour or material to assist people to identify key elements in landscaped areas, for example, seating, shelter and barbecues.

Key access dimensions

 

An example of a raised garden bed with room underneath so as to be wheelchair accessible.Figure 3: Raised garden bed

  1. Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards
  2. Raised garden beds that are between 750mm – 850mm high with leg clearance underneath that is a minimum of 600mm high and 750mm deep

  • A continuous accessible path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high and 1000mm wide for an ambulant person, 1200mm wide for a person using a wheelchair, 1500mm wide for two people to pass each other easily and 1800mm wide for a person using a wheelchair to turn 180 degrees.
  • Signage and operating instructions at landscape installations within appropriate 'Zones for Viewing' in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Circulation around any landscape installations that allows for a person to approach from a variety of angles (minimum 800mm x 1300mm).
  • Landscape installations connected to, but setback a minimum of 500mm from any pathway.
  • Minimum 30 per cent luminance contrast between landscape installations and background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Maximum height at the top of hedges or similar fences 1050mm above ground level.
  • Raised garden beds that are between 750mm - 850mm high with leg clearance underneath a minimum of 600mm high and 750mm deep.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Lighting over any landscape installations to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Table 42: Relevant Australian Standards for landscape design

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for Access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for Access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS/NZS 4586 - 2004Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials

Links to other relevant information

Signage and wayfinding

Key requirements

Consideration should be given to the four main criteria in wayfinding design as follows:

  • architectural cues
  • graphic communication
  • audible communication
  • tactile communication.

Consideration should also be given to provision of the four main categories of graphic wayfinding elements including:

  • identification
  • reinforcement
  • orientation
  • destination.

General access requirements for all signage

  • Work within a hierarchy of signage to maximise impact and usability as follows:
  • identification - property, building number, name visible from the roadside, distance of travel
  • information - opening hours, facilities available, for example, toilets, picnic areas; located directly inside site or building entrance
  • direction - text and arrows directing users to facilities, for example, at directional decision points, car parking, set down and waiting areas
  • emergency and safety signs - at various locations including emergency exits.
  • Appropriate print size on all signs suitable for expected viewing distances.
  • A range of alternatives to printed signage only, for example, audio, raised tactile and Braille.

General access requirements for static signage

  • Appropriately located at entry to and along continuous accessible paths of travel.
  • Clearly visible to people when standing or seated.
  • Consistent graphic style and layout throughout a site or building.
  • Appropriate use of international symbols of access or deafness.
  • Concise and unambiguous content.
  • Use of common terms, names and colours rather than obscure, technical names, for example, orange, blue, brown rather than ochre, turquoise or beige.
  • Use of appropriate inclusive language, 'accessible' entry or ramp in preference to 'disabled' entry or ramp.
  • Factual and specific information about degrees of difficulty of pathways in outdoor spaces such as parks, suitable for tourists, experienced hikers, assisted wheelchair users and independent wheelchair users.
  • Capital and lower case letters (Sentence case).
  • Use of Sans Serif font, Arial or Helvetica fonts.
  • Effective contrast between sign and sign background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Raised tactile and Braille elements on facility identification and direction signs, toilets.
  • Back-lit without glare.
  • Low reflectivity (avoid glass and acrylic materials).
  • Consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare) over key elements within the space.
  • Well maintained and free from any overhanging obstructions and graffiti.

General access requirements for screen and scrolling signage

  • Minimum six second static to allow for reading of sign.
  • Audio alternatives to screen or scrolling signs.

General access requirements for maps

  • Maps of any site or building at the entrance and at key directional points.* Maps that read in the direction that the user is facing, including information to assist users with their current location, 'you are here' and identifying fixtures or landmarks to assist with wayfinding, for example, water fountain, sculpture and/or arbour.
  • Continuity of language in informational maps and signage, that is, for example, information map states 'pavilion', sign at building states 'pavilion'.

General access requirements for tactile signs and maps

  • Tactile signs and maps at key points within a building or site.
  • Tactile signs or maps at the main entry to a venue.
  • Tactile information that includes general orientation cues, access and exit points, changes in direction and key facilities.

General access requirements for display and exhibition signage

  • Descriptive labelling on exhibits in Sans Serif font type and appropriate size.
  • Appropriate lighting.
  • Appropriate contrast to background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Use of non-reflective signage materials.
  • Audio programs as alternatives to signage on displays or exhibits.

General access requirements for tactile ground surface indicators

  • Hazard tactile ground surface indicators used to assist with wayfinding installed at the top and bottom of steps, stairs and ramps, along jetties, raised platforms etc and other areas where there is an overhead obstruction encroaching on to a pathway, underneath a stair croft, and at changes in direction on pathways.
  • Directional tactile ground surface indicators used to assist with wayfinding by providing direction to installations such at road crossing points, seating and public transport stops.
  • Appropriate luminance contrast between tactile ground surface indicators and background and adjacent surfaces.

Key access dimensions

 

Braille and tactile signage for toilets.Figure 4: Braille and tactile signage for toilet facilities

  1. International Symbol of Access – white wheelchair on ultramarine blue background
  2. Braille and tactile signage installed latch side of door 1200mm – 1600mm above floor level

 

  • Letters 17.5mm high for each metre of viewing distance.
  • Minimum 30 per cent luminance contrast between sign and sign background - white on black, yellow on black and white on ultramarine blue to Australian Standards is recommended.
  • If signage can be obscured, installation of duplicate signage located above 2000mm.
  • Sans serif type font, Arial or Helvetica type font.
  • Signage located within the common 'Zones for Viewing' in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Tactile and Braille signage installed to identify an accessible entry of a building at any non-accessible entry, an accessible toilet and the type of toilet provided, left hand use or right hand use, an ambulant toilet, hearing augmentation type and space covered and the location of receivers if in use, and lifts.
  • Tactile ground surface indicators set back 300mm ± 10mm from any hazard (600mm - 800mm deep), extending across the width of a path adjoining the hazard, and with a minimum of 30 per cent luminance contrast to the surrounding ground surface and background. (Dimensions for tactile ground surface indicators, both hazard and directional, at specific locations and required luminance contrasts in accordance with Australian Standards).
  • Raised tactile and Braille signs mounted at a height of 1200mm – 1600mm above the ground or floor surface.
  • Appropriate international symbol of access as required.

Table 43: Relevant Australian Standards for signage and wayfinding

NumberTitle
AS/NZS 2890.6 - 2009Parking Facilities - Off-street Parking for People with Disabilities
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for Access and Mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for Access and Mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

AS 1428.3 – 1992

Obsolescent June 2012 

Design for Access and Mobility - Requirements for Children and Adolescents with Physical Disabilities
AS/NZS 1428.4:1 - 2009Tactile Ground Surface Indicators for the Orientation of People with Vision Impairment
AS 1428.5Design for Access and Mobility - Communication for People who are Deaf or Hearing Impaired
AS/NZS 4586 - 2004Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS 1158 - 2010Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces
AS 1680 - 2009 Interior Lighting - Safe Movement
AS 1735Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks
AS 1670.4 - 2004Fire Detection System Design, installation and
commissioning - Sound Systems and Intercom Systems for Emergency Purposes
AS 2293.1 - 2005Emergency Escape Lighting and Exit Signs for Buildings - System Design, Installation and Operation
AS 4428.4 - 2004Fire Detection, Warning, Control and Intercom Systems - Control and Indicating Equipment - Intercommunication Systems for Emergency Purposes
AS 1744:1975Standard Alphabets for Road Signs - metric units
AS 2700 -1996Colour Standards for general purposes
AS 1742.5 - 1997Street Name and Community Facility Name Signs
AS 2156.1 - 2001Walking Tracks - Classification and signage
ISO 7001:2007Graphical Symbols - Public information symbols
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information