Toilets and change rooms

Toilets - Accessible, ambulant and portable

Toilets are required to comply with the Disability (Access to Premises – Buildings) Standards 2010.

The Australian Standard AS1428.1 is referenced by the Disability (Access to Premises – Buildings Standards) 2010. This requires existing toilets to comply with AS 1428.1:2001.

However, the updated Standard AS 1428.1 2009 requires a larger pan circulation space for toilets in new buildings and buildings undergoing significant upgrade, if the existing toilet is affected by the upgrade works and does not comply with AS 1428.1 2001. If it does not comply with this Standard it will need to be upgraded to the newer version. Further details can be found in the Disability (Access to Premises – Buildings) Standards 2010.

The following key requirements and access dimensions for toilets must be read in conjunction with key requirements and key access dimensions for all buildings and all installations.

Key requirements for all toilets

  • A range of toilets including standard, unisex accessible and ambulant toilets that can be used by people with a range of needs on each floor of a building that has standard toilet cubicles, for example, parent with pram or a person using a wheelchair.
  • Consideration given to the building use and expected gender use, that is, more toilet facilities provided for females or males if required.
  • A continuous accessible path of travel from the site entry and any onsite car park to and through any toilet area.
  • Clear, easy to read signage at the entry to any toilets incorporating relevant international symbols of access or deafness, that can easily be read by a person when standing or seated and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Cubicles that are deep enough to allow a person to take a mobility aid into the cubicle, for example, wheeled luggage and shopping jeep.
  • Unisex accessible toilets that can be used by people of opposing gender, for example, father with daughter, mother with son or husband with wife.
  • Unisex accessible toilets suitable for use by both left and right handed users, including both children and adults.
  • A level transition or an appropriate threshold or step ramp at the entry door.
  • Wide doorway (self-opening preferred), that is not heavy or hard to open and provides adequate circulation space.
  • Toilet door that can be easily opened from outside (emergency use).
  • Wide screen style entrances that eliminate the need for doors on access pathways to toilets, where possible.
  • Airlocks that are easy for all users to move through, for example, person using wheelchair, pram and assistance animal.
  • Floor surfaces that are slip resistant in both wet and dry conditions.
  • Controls on fixtures, fittings, toilets that can be reached by a person when seated on the toilet and that are easy to see and use with a closed fist or open palm, for example, flushing controls and toilet paper holder.
  • Effective contrasts between vertical and horizontal surfaces around toilet door, fixtures, fittings, benches, toilets and signage.
  • Full, round, secured toilet seat in contrast to the background (e.g. pan, wall or floor).
  • An adjustable height toilet seat.
  • Hand basin that has an appropriate depth and is installed at an appropriate height with leg clearance underneath (located within any unisex accessible toilet).
  • Hand basin with lever or sensor operated taps, within reach of a person when standing or seated.
  • Controls on fixtures and fittings on hand basins that can be reached by a person when seated and that are easy to see and use with a closed fist or open palm, for example, soap dispenser, hand dryer, lever or sensor operated taps.
  • Shelf next to a hand basin for the placement of personal items.
  • Mirror, clothes hanging device, rubbish bins, sanitary or any disposal units that can be used by a person when standing or seated.
  • Baby change facility that is usable by all people, but does not encroach on the required circulation space within a unisex accessible toilet. (Placement near entry point will ensure it is closed prior to vacating)
  • Audible and visible emergency alarms.
  • Fly wire screens on any windows.
  • Consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare) over key elements within the space.
  • Toilets that are maintained to be clean and odour free.

Accessible toilets

  • Signage that identifies if the toilet is suitable for left or right hand use.
  • An emergency alarm installed within reach of the pan.
  • Appropriate grab rails installed at the side and rear of the pan.

Ambulant toilets

  • Appropriate grab rails installed at the side and rear (where not obstructed by cistern) of the pan.

Portable toilets

  • Level or ramp access.
  • Adequate circulation space.
  • Easy to use door handles.

Key access dimensions

  • A continuous accessible path of travel that is a minimum 1000mm wide and 2000mm high (1980mm at doorways) to and through any toilet area.
  • Signage installed within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Braille and tactile signage installed on the latch side of the door at a height of between 1200 - 1600mm.
  • A minimum 850mm clear opening width at doors (including active leaf) with circulation space provided at both sides of door that considers angles of approach and does not impede on the use of elements within the facility, for example, a basin.
  • Maximum rise of 35mm, 280mm length and gradient of 1:8 at any threshold ramp.
  • D or D lever style door handles 900 - 1100mm high and an occupied indicator.
  • A maximum force of 20N at the door handle to open doors.
  • Minimum 30% luminance contrasts between doorways, walls, fixtures, fittings and background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Airlocks that meet the requirements of Australian Standards to an accessible toilet and an ambulant toilet.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Lighting installed to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Accessible toilet - existing

  • A minimum 1600 x 2000mm to a height of 900mm pan circulation space.
  • 450 - 460mm centreline of pan from adjacent wall.
  • 460 – 480mm top of seat above floor.
  • 790 - 810mm front of pan to rear wall.
  • A minimum of 950mm at side of pan.
  • A minimum of 1200mm at front of pan (1100mm to basin).
  • A maximum 300mm forward of pan and 700mm high toilet paper holder.
  • 1100mm maximum height flushing control.
  • 770 - 800mm maximum height hand basin top edge with appropriate leg clearance underneath.
  • 900 - 1100mm maximum height soap dispenser, hand dryer.
  • 900 - 1850mm maximum height mirror.
  • 1250 - 1350mm maximum height clothes hanging device.
  • 30 - 40mm dia. grab rails installed at a height of 800 - 810mm with an appropriate length, distance from adjoining surfaces and angle of installations.

Accessible toilet - new


 

An overhead view of an accessible toilet.Figure 1: Overhead view of an accessible toilet

  1. 790 – 810mm front of pan to rear wall
  2. A minimum 1900 x 2300mm to a height of 2000mm pan circulation space
  3. A minimum 850mm clear opening width at doors (including active leaf) with circulation space provided at both sides of door that considers angles of approach and does not impede on the use of elements within the facility, e.g. basin

Figure 11: Side view of accessible toilet (new)

  • 30 – 40mm diameter grab rails installed at a height of 800 – 810mm with and appropriate length, distance from adjoining surfaces and angle of installation
  • 770 – 800mm maximum height hand basin top edge with appropriate leg clearance underneath
  • Toilet paper holder a maximum 300mm forward of pan and 700mm high
  • 790 – 810mm front of pan to rear wall

  • A minimum 1900 x 2300mm to a height of 2000mm pan circulation space.
  • 450 - 460mm centreline of pan from adjacent wall.
  • 460 - 480 top of seat above floor.
  • 790 - 810mm front of pan to rear wall.
  • A maximum 300mm forward of pan and 700mm high toilet paper holder.
  • 1100mm maximum height flushing control.
  • 900 - 1100mm maximum height soap dispenser and hand dryer.
  • 800 – 840mm maximum height basin (semi-recessed), 800 – 830mm maximum height basin (wall mounted).
  • 900 - 1850mm maximum height mirror.
  • 1250 - 1350mm maximum height clothes hanging device.
  • 30 - 40mm dia. grab rails installed at a height of 800 - 810mm with an appropriate length, distance from adjoining surfaces and angle of installations.
  • A backrest in accordance with Australian Standards.

Ambulant toilet


 

 

Side view of an ambulant toilet.Figure 2: Side view of an ambulant toilet

 

 

  1. Cubicle no less than 900 – 920mm wide
  2. Doors that have a minimum clear opening of 700mm

 

Overhead view of ambulant toilet.Figure 3: Overhead view of an ambulant toilet

  1. 30 – 40mm diameter grab rails installed at a height of 800 – 810mm with an appropriate length, distance from adjoining surfaces and angles of installations
  2. Height of top of seat 460 – 480mm above floor level
  3. Minimum 900mm space at front of pan

  • Doors that have a minimum clear opening of 700mm.
  • Cubicle no less than 900 - 920mm wide.
  • 610 - 660mm front of pan to rear wall.
  • 460 – 480mm top of seat above floor.
  • 30 - 40mm dia. grab rails installed at a height of 800 - 810mm with an appropriate length, distance from adjoining surfaces and angle of installations.
  • A coat hook installed at a height of 1350 - 1500mm above floor level.

Table 1: Relevant Australian Standards for accessible, ambulant and portable toilets

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 1428.3 – 1992
Obsolescent June 2012
Design for access and mobility - Requirements for Children and Adolescents with Physical Disabilities
AS/NZS 4586 - 2004Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS 1158 - 2010Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces
AS 1680 - 2009Interior Lighting - Safe Movement
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information​

Baby change areas

The following key requirements and access dimensions for baby change areas must be read in conjunction with key requirements and key access dimensions for all buildings and all installations.

Key requirements

  • Unisex accessible baby change area incorporating, or with direct access via a connecting doorway, to accessible and ambulant toilets.
  • A continuous accessible path of travel from the property entrance and any onsite car park to and around the baby change table.
  • Clear, easy to read signage and operating instructions that can easily be read by a person when standing or seated and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Firm, level, slip resistant floor surface, in both wet and dry conditions under the baby change table.
  • Baby change table installed at a height suitable for use by a person when standing or seated and incorporating adequate leg clearance underneath.
  • If installed in a designated unisex accessible toilet, baby change table located so that it does not encroach into the minimum required circulation space of the toilet. (Placement near entry point will ensure it is closed prior to vacating).
  • Adequate circulation space for a person using a pram, stroller or wheelchair to move around easily and access all fixtures fittings within the space, for example, baby change table, wash basin and nappy bin.
  • Space to approach the baby change table from both the front and side.
  • Effective contrasts between the baby change table, other fittings and background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Controls that can be reached by a person when standing or seated and used with a closed fist or open palm and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Hand basin with lever or sensor operated taps, within reach of the change table.
  • Nappy disposal unit provided in an accessible location.
  • Accessible toilets and hand basins within the area (if space allows), that provide access for children and adults and consider users who are either left or right handed.
  • Consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare).

Key access dimensions


 

An example of a baby change area.Figure 4: Baby change area

 

  1. If installed in a designated unisex accessible toilet, baby change table located so that it does not encroach into the minimum required circulation space of the toilet
  2. Self closing baby change table
  3. Maximum 820mm high baby change table and a minimum of 720mm leg clearance underneath

  • A continuous accessible pedestrian path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high (1980mm at doorways) and 1000mm wide.
  • Signage installed within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • A minimum 850mm clear opening width at doorways with circulation space provided at both sides that considers angles of approach.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Maximum 820mm high baby change table and a minimum of 720mm leg clearance underneath.
  • Self closing baby change table.
  • Accessible showers, toilets, fixtures and fittings to Australian Standards.
  • Lighting installed to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Table 2: Relevant Australian Standards for baby change areas

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 4586 - 2013Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS/NZS 1158 Set:2010Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces
AS 1680 - 2009 Interior Lighting - Safe Movement
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information​

Family change areas

The following key requirements and access dimensions for family change areas must be read in conjunction with key requirements and key access dimensions for all buildings and all installations

Key requirements

  • Unisex accessible family change area incorporating, or with direct access via a connecting doorway, to accessible and ambulant toilets.
  • A continuous accessible path of travel from the property entrance and any onsite car park to and within the family change area.
  • Adequate circulation space for a person using a pram, stroller or wheelchair to move around easily and access all fixtures fittings within the space, for example, baby change table, wash basin and nappy bin.
  • Baby change table installed at a height suitable for use by a person when standing or seated and incorporating adequate leg clearance underneath. (Placement near entry point will ensure it is closed prior to vacating)
  • Clear, easy to read signage and operating instructions, incorporating relevant international symbols of access or deafness, that can easily be read by a person when standing or seated and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Controls that can be reached by a person when standing or seated and used with a closed fist or open palm and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Easy to access and use sanitary disposal unit provided in an accessible location.
  • Effective contrasts between fixtures, fittings and background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Firm, level, slip resistant floor surface, in both wet and dry conditions.
  • Grab rails on walls in change area and in any shower or toilet areas.
  • Hair and hand dryers in an accessible location.
  • Lockers or storage units located nearby or within the area if space permits.
  • Nappy disposal unit provided in an accessible location.
  • Seating with backs and armrests.
  • Space to approach any change table from both the front and side.
  • Tear off paper towel for use on change table.
  • Hand basin with lever or sensor operated taps, within reach of the change table.
  • Accessible toilets, hand basins and showers that provide access for children and adults and which consider users who are left and right handed.
  • Seating with backs and armrests suitable for both adults and children.
  • Consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare) at the entrance door and within the area.

Key access dimensions

  • A continuous accessible pedestrian path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high (1980mm at doorways) and 1000mm wide.
  • Signage installed within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • A minimum 850mm clear opening width at doorways with circulation space provided at both sides that considers angles of approach.
  • Minimum space of 2100mm ceiling height (2400mm preferred).
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards
  • Maximum 820mm high baby change table and a minimum of 720mm leg clearance underneath.
  • Self closing baby change table.
  • Accessible showers, toilets, fixtures and fittings to Australian Standards.
  • Lighting installed to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards

Table 3: Relevant Australian Standards for family change areas

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 4586 - 2013Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS/NZS 1158 Set:2010 Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces
AS 1680 - 2009Interior Lighting - Safe Movement
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information​

Adult assisted change areas

The following key requirements and access dimensions for adult assisted change areas must be read in conjunction with key requirements and key access dimensions for all buildings and all installations.

Key requirements

  • Unisex adult assisted change area to accommodate people with a carer of the opposite gender and incorporating, or with direct access via a connecting
  • doorway, to accessible and ambulant toilets.
  • A continuous accessible path of travel from the property entrance and any onsite car park, to and within the change area.
  • Clear, easy to read signage and operating instructions, incorporating relevant international symbols of access or deafness, that can easily be read by a person when standing or seated and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Firm, level, slip resistant floor surface, in both wet and dry conditions.
  • Adjustable height adult change table suitable for use by a person when standing or seated and incorporating adequate leg clearance underneath.
  • Adequate circulation space for a person using a pram, stroller or wheelchair to move around easily and access all fixtures fittings within the space, for example, change table, wash basin and rubbish bin.
  • Space to approach any change table from both the front and side.
  • Effective contrasts between fixtures, fittings and background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Controls that can be reached by a person when standing or seated and used with a closed fist or open palm and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Hand basin with lever or sensor operated taps, within reach of the change table.
  • Easy to access and use sanitary disposal unit provided in an accessible location.
  • Hair and hand dryers in an accessible location.
  • A tracking hoist that provides entire room coverage and can be stored appropriately when not in use.
  • Grab rails on walls in the change area and in any shower or toilet areas.
  • Lockers or storage units located nearby or within the area if space permits.
  • Seating with backs and armrests.
  • Tear off paper towel for use on change table.
  • Accessible toilet hand basins and showers within the change area, that provide access for children and adults and support people who are either left or right handed.
  • Consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare) at the entrance door and within the area.

Key access dimensions


 

An example of an adult assisted change areaFigure 5: Adult assisted change area

  1. Minimum space of 3500mm x 2000mm with a 2400mm ceiling height (or equivalent 7m²)
  2. A height adjustable adult change table a minimum of 1800mm in length
  3. A clear space in front of the toilet (1500mm diameter) that allows a person to turn their wheelchair, without interference of the toilet pan and adult change table

  • A continuous accessible pedestrian path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high (1980mm at doorways) and 1000mm wide.
  • Signage installed within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Minimum 850mm clear opening width at doorways and circulation space on both sides of doors that considers angles of approach.
  • Minimum space of 3500mm x 2000mm with a 2400mm ceiling height (or equivalent 7m²). (3000mm x 3400mm preferred).
  • A height adjustable adult change table a minimum of 1800mm in length.
  • Accessible showers, toilets, fixtures and fittings in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Lighting installed to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Table 4: Relevant Australian Standards for adult assisted change areas

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992 Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 4586 - 2013Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS/NZS 1158 Set:2010Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces
AS 1680 - 2009Interior Lighting - Safe Movement
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information​

Showers

The following key requirements and access dimensions for showers must be read in conjunction with key requirements and key access dimensions for all buildings and all installations.

Key requirements

  • A continuous accessible path of travel from the property entrance and any onsite car park to and into the shower area.
  • Clear, easy to read signage at the entry to any showers incorporating relevant international symbols of access or deafness, that can easily be read by a person when standing or seated and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Wide doorways which are not heavy or hard to open and provide appropriate circulation space.
  • Doors that can be easily opened from the outside in an emergency.
  • Shower area that is large enough for use by a person and a carer to assist when necessary.
  • Floor surfaces that are slip resistant in wet and dry conditions.
  • Showers that provide appropriate space for a person when standing or seated.
  • Space available for people to transfer into or from mobility aids or aquatic wheelchair.
  • Level shower floor and circulation space, for example, self draining with no step down, hob or kerb.
  • Horizontal and vertical grab rails installed on walls.
  • A vertical showerhead support and moveable showerhead that has an appropriate length flexible hose.
  • A shower seat that is self draining and has drop down legs to provide extra stability.
  • Appropriately located and graded drain.
  • Lever or sensor operated taps.
  • A soap holder within reach when seated in shower.
  • Access to a shelf for placement of personal items.
  • Clothes hanging devices that can be accessed from a standing or seated position.
  • Provision of mats for placement over benches seats to prevent injury or for people with sensitive skin, for example, small children and babies.
  • Lockers / storage units located nearby.
  • Controls on fixtures, fittings, showers that can be reached by a person when seated on the toilet and that are easy to see and use with a closed fist or open palm, for example, taps and seats
  • Effective contrasts between doorway, fixtures and fittings, adjacent and background surfaces.
  • Clean, maintained shower space.
  • Consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare) at and within the shower area.

Key access dimensions


Figure 6: Overhead view of shower
 

Overhead view of shower.Figure 6: Overhead view of shower

  1. Circulation space (a minimum 1600 x 2350mm (two walled enclosure) and 1600 x 2500mm (three wall enclosure)
  2. Grade of between 1:60 – 1:80 in shower recesses and between 1:80 – 1:100 in the adjoining circulation space

 

Side view of shower.Figure 7: Side view of shower

  1. Horizontal and vertical grab rails installed on walls
  2. A flexible hose a minimum of 1500mm long shall be provided on any hand held shower head
  3. Grade of between 1:60 – 1:80 in shower recess and between 1:80 – 1:100 in the adjoining circulation space

  • A continuous accessible pedestrian path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high (1980mm at doorways) and 1000mm wide.
  • Signage installed within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • A minimum 850mm clear opening width at doorways with circulation space provided at both sides that considers angles of approach.
  • Circulation space a minimum 1600 x 2350mm (two walled enclosure) and 1600 x 2500mm (three wall enclosure) with appropriate wet areas and fittings installed at appropriate heights – note spaces may overlap with toilet circulation space as appropriate.
  • Grade of between 1:60 - 1:80 in shower recesses and between 1:80 - 1:100 in the adjoining circulation space.
  • Horizontal grab rail installed at a height of 800 – 810mm in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Showerhead vertical grabrail heights in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • A flexible hose a min. of 1500mm on any hand held shower head.
  • Wall outlet plus backflow prevention device 695 – 705mm from finished floor.
  • A shower seat that has rounded corners, legs that fold up when not in use and a minimum length of 960mm, depth 390 - 400mm and height of 470 - 480mm.
  • Soap dispenser at maximum height of 900 - 1100mm.
  • Clothes hanging devices with reach of the seat, that is, 400 ± 10mm and 600mm ± 10mm from seat at 1200 - 1350mm maximum height.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Lighting installed to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Table 5: Relevant Australian Standards for showers

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 4586 - 2013Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS/NZS 1158 Set:2010Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces
AS 1680 - 2009Interior Lighting - Safe Movement
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information​