Landscape design

All installations

There are a number of general key requirements and key access dimensions to consider for all installations, in order to maximise use for everyone.

General key requirements

A continuous accessible path of travel should be provided from any car park, public transport, taxi set down area and property boundary to, around and next to all installations within a site, to support access and use by everyone. This route can consist of pathways, roadways, pedestrian crossings and ramps. It cannot incorporate any step, stairway, turnstile, revolving door, escalator, moving walk other impediment. Key requirements to consider for all installations include:

  • a continuous accessible path of travel from the property entrance onsite or associated car park to, around and next to the installation and connected to other onsite buildings and installations
  • clear, easy to read signage and operating instructions, incorporating relevant international symbols of access or deafness, that can easily be read by a person when standing or seated and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements
  • installation located on firm, level, slip resistant ground surface, in both wet and dry conditions
  • space to approach the installation from both the front and side
  • space next to the installation for a person using a mobility aid to stop without obstructing the pathway
  • installation connected to, but set back from the pathway
  • installation designed with operative components, including controls that can be reached by a person when standing or seated, used with a closed fist or open palm and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements
  • shade and shelter over the installation and any associated elements
  • installation at a height suitable for use by a person when standing or seated and incorporating adequate leg clearance underneath
  • effective contrasts between installation and background and adjacent surfaces
  • consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or providing glare).

Key access dimensions

  • A continuous accessible path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high (1980mm at doorways) and 1000mm wide for an ambulant person, 1200mm wide for a person using a wheelchair, 1500mm wide for two people to pass each other easily and 1800mm wide for a person using a wheelchair to turn 180°.
  • Signage and operating instructions installed within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Circulation around the installation that allows for a person to approach from a variety of angles (minimum 800mm x 1300mm).
  • Installation connected to, but setback a minimum of 500mm from any pathway.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Minimum 30% luminance contrast between installation and background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Lighting over the installation to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Table 20: Relevant Australian Standards for all installations
 

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

AS 1428.3 – 1992

Obsolescent June 2012 

Design for access and mobility - Requirements for Children and Adolescents with Physical Disabilities
AS/NZS 1428.4.1 - 2009Tactile Ground Surface Indicators for the Orientation of People with Vision Impairment
AS 4586 - 2013Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials
AS/NZS 1158 Set:2010Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces
AS 1680 - 2009Interior Lighting - Safe Movement
Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010

Links to other relevant information

Barbecues

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for barbecues must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

  • Easy to see and use controls at the front of the hot plate that can be reached by a person when standing or seated and used with a closed fist or open palm and incorporating raised tactile and Braille elements.
  • Coin feed points that are easy to see and reach and alternatives to these where possible.
  • Some low height benches with adequate leg clearance underneath, adjacent to the barbecue hot plate.
  • Bench with a heat resistant surface adjacent to the hot plate, without any lip, to allow for cooking pans to be moved off the hot plate without the need to lift.
  • Low height sinks (if sinks provided) with adequate leg clearance underneath and incorporating lever or sensor operated taps.

Key access dimensions

  • Top of the barbecue hotplate at a height between 830 - 870mm above the floor or ground level with leg clearance at a height of 800 - 840mm underneath for minimum of 900mm.
  • Coin feed slots 800 – 900mm high.
  • Benches that are adjustable or have a section at a height between 830 - 870mm above floor or ground level with leg clearance at a height of 800 - 840mm underneath for minimum of 900mm.
  • Sink 770 - 800mm high with 640 - 650mm leg clearance underneath.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards. 

 

An example of a wheelchair accessible bench and barbecue area.Figure 1: Barbecue area

  1. Top of the barbecue hotplate at a height between 830 – 870mm above the floor or ground level
  2. Low height benches with adequate leg clearance underneath, adjacent to the barbecue hotplate

Table 21: Relevant Australian Standards for barbecues

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

Links to other relevant information

Drinking fountains

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for drinking fountains must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

  • Located in an area that has appropriate drainage to ensure that any water spillage does not create an unstable, wet ground surface.
  • Easy to access water outlet at the front of the drinking fountain bowl removing the need to stretch and lean over bowl to access water.
  • Water receptacle located close to the ground, at rear of drinking fountain for use by companion or assistance animals.
  • Controls that are easy to reach and use (e.g. lever) with fist, open palm.

Key access dimensions


Figure 2: Drinking fountain

 

A drinking fountain.Figure 2: Drinking fountain

  1. Water receptacle located close to the ground at rear of drinking fountain for use by companion or assistance animals
  2. Operating force of button / control no more than 19.5N (lever or sensor preferred)
  3. Height to bottom of bowl 640 – 650mm
  4. Height of top of bowl 695 – 700mm
  5. Ensure location considers multiple angles of approach 

  • Appropriate reach ranges to the drinking fountain, in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Height of top of bowl 695 - 700mm.
  • Height of bottom of bowl 640 - 650mm.
  • Depth under bowl 490 - 500mm.
  • Circulation space around unit min. 1500mm either side of, and to rear of fountain, which allows a user to circle unit as necessary with an assistance animal if required.
  • Operating force of button no more than 19.5N (lever or sensor preferred).
  • Bowl, arm, frame and bubbler to have a satin finish to reduce reflection and glare.
  • Bubbler to be as close as possible to the front of the unit and able to direct water flow to a height of 80 -100mm.
  • Surrounding grates are to run at a right angle to direction of travel with a maximum 13mm wide x 150mm long openings.

Table 23: Relevant Australian Standards for drinking fountains

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 4586 - 2013Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials

Links to other relevant information

Litter bins

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for litter bins must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

  • An opening that is located at the front of the litter bin which is easy to locate and open (not too heavy) (foot operated, in addition to swing or push operation at opening point, is preferred).
  • Opening that can be reached by a person when standing or seated.
  • Litter bins installed at regular intervals along pathways with co-located installation, for example, seating, lighting, barbecue areas and bike storage.
  • A consistent distribution of litter bins in large open areas, eliminating the need to carry rubbish for long distances.
  • Contrasting colours and symbols to designate bin uses, for example, recyclable and waste.

Key access dimensions

  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.

Table 24: Relevant Australian Standards for litter bins

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

Links to other relevant information

Seating and tables

Seating and tables may be required at a range of locations. Seating in parks and along pathways for example, should incorporate a range of seats with backs and arm rests with various seat heights to supports both children and adults. These seats should also incorporate an adjacent wheelchair space so that people can move off a path of travel and sit with others using the seats.

Seating is also required in stadiums and sports facilities for spectators using wheelchairs or other mobility aids. Accessible seating and wheelchair seating spaces should be integrated with other seating to ensure everyone including family, friends or carers can sit together and enjoy the event.

Seats should incorporate backs and arm rests and as well as adjacent wheelchair spaces. Spaces for people using wheelchairs should not be segregated from other people and should not be provided in one location only. A variety of seating options should be available at a number of locations. Clear lines of sight should be maintained from all seating to allow for ease of viewing of the installation or activity that is taking place.

Picnic tables located on a firm, level, slip resistant ground surface that provide a variety of access points e.g. end or side are also important. A continuous accessible path of travel is required to accessible seating and tables.

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for seating and tables must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

 

  • Seating and tables that are installed at regular intervals with co-located facilities (for example, rubbish bins and bike racks).
  • Various height seats suitable for all people including older adults and children which are free of materials that can splinter.
  • Seating with backs and armrests of various configuration (for example, one armrest, armrests either ends and central armrest).
  • Seating and table materials that do not retain heat or cold.
  • Seating and tables that incorporate clear, level circulation space that allows room for the placement of items, for example, pram to rest, dog to sit, person using wheelchair to sit next to seat.
  • Additional ‘overflow’ seating incorporated into landscaped areas, for example, walls.
  • Movable seating provided at reception, restaurant, kiosks, recreation facilities, retail areas and in accessible showers, incorporating backs and armrests.
  • Wheelchair seating spaces provided where fixed seating is available.
  • A change of texture or ground surface colour at seating and tables to designate the area.
  • Tables that have rounded edges and that are free from materials that can splinter.
  • Tables incorporating an extended end with adequate space for a person to move in underneath when seated.
  • Where fixed seating is installed at tables, space at one end or side of the table for a person to easily move in and underneath, if using a wheelchair.
  • Accessible spectator seating and wheelchair spaces at a variety of locations within relevant buildings and facilities, so users can sit with family and friends.

Key access dimensions


 

 

An example of seating and a table connected to a pathway.Figure 3: Seating and table connected to a pathway

 

 

  1. Seating that incorporates clear, level circulation space that allows room for the placement of items, e.g. pram to rest, dog to sit, person using wheelchair to sit next to seat
  2. Seating with backs and armrests (220 – 300mm above the seat) e.g. at a height of 350mm – suitable for children, 450mm – general public use, 520mm – for older adults
  3. Tables incorporating an extended end with adequate space for a person to move in underneath when seated
  4. Seating connected to but set back from path minimum of 500mm

  • Seating installed at a minimum of 60m intervals along pathways.
  • Minimum 900mm between seating and tables that are placed side by side.
  • Various height seating 450 - 520mm with backs and armrests (top installed 220 -300mm above seat) - 450mm adults, 520mm older adults. If children are expected to be a primary user, a seat height of 350mm will assist.
  • Landscaped seating at least 300mm wide with an overhang of 100mm to allow a person to place their heels on the ground when getting up from the seat.
  • Fixed wheelchair seating spaces provided and located within a facility that meet the size and ratio of the space served in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • A minimum circulation space of 1500mm around a table to allow a person to manoeuvre easily.
  • Minimum depth of 620mm under a table for a person using a wheelchair and if two spaces are located opposite on the same table, the table needs to be at least 1240mm deep with a height under the table a minimum of 800mm.

Table 25: Relevant Australian Standards for seating and tables

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

Links to other relevant information

Shade and shelter

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for shade and shelter must be considered in addition to those for all installations.

Key requirements

Shade and shelter, both above and around (vertical and horizontal), to protect all users from extremes of weather at the following external installations:

  • accessible car parking
  • ball courts
  • barbecues
  • bicycle storage and racks
  • camp sites
  • entrances to buildings and facilities
  • notice boards
  • outdoor seating
  • pathways leading to customer service areas
  • play spaces
  • spectator seating
  • swimming pools and spas
  • transport set down and waiting areas
  • vending machines
  • viewing areas.
  • Use of the natural environment where possible, for example, bushes, large stable rocks, shrubs that do not drop excessive debris.
  • Pathways that extend beyond the areas of shade to ensure the flow of pedestrian traffic is not interrupted.
  • Maintenance of a clear path of travel through any shelter or infrastructure.
  • Shade and shelter points connected to paths of travel to provide appropriate access.
  • Shade and shelter points that consider the size and space requirements of all users, for example, parents with prams, person with assistance animal or using a wheelchair.

Key access dimensions

  • A minimum 2000mm overhead clearance on any path of travel where shade or shelter is provided.

Table 26: Relevant Australian Standards for shade and shelter

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities

Links to other relevant information

Landscape design

The following key requirements and key access dimensions for landscape design must be considered in addition to those for all installations particularly as they relate to landscape installations, for example, sculptures, arbours, water features or other structures.

Key requirements

  • Signage indicating key landscaping elements which are available for people to experience, for example, sculptures, arbours and garden beds.
  • A continuous accessible path of travel from any car park, public transport and taxi set down area and property boundary through any landscaping elements along pathways.
  • Entrances and pathways which are free from plant and tree droppings, leaves, seed pods, bark or any plants that attract insects or have prickles and thorns.
  • Garden beds with raised sections to support access for all users, including a person when be standing or seated.
  • Landscaping elements that do not drop excessive debris, used to shade key elements in outdoor areas, for example, play spaces and seating.
  • Landscaping elements along pathways and around elements that do not encroach into lines of sight for users of the area, for example, children, older adult, person who is deaf.
  • Landscaping elements incorporating an effective contrast between vertical and horizontal surfaces and background and adjacent surfaces, for example, raised garden beds and plant surrounds.
  • Adequate overhead and side clearance along pathways ensuring no landscape elements or installations, for example, sculptures, arbours, garden, water fountains encroach.
  • Landscaping elements and installations that consider and assist with way finding, for example, colour and scent cues, structures at entry and exit points, and defined pathway edgings.
  • Change of ground surface colour or material to assist people to identify key elements in landscaped areas, for example, seating, shelter and BBQs.

Key access dimensions


 

A raised wheelchair accessible garden bed.Figure 4: Raised garden bed

  1. Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards
  2. Raised garden beds that are between 750 – 850mm high with leg clearance underneath a minimum of 600mm high and 750mm deep

  • A continuous accessible path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high and 1000mm wide for an ambulant person, 1200mm wide for a person using a wheelchair, 1500mm wide for two people to pass each other easily and 1800mm wide for a person using a wheelchair to turn 180°.
  • Signage and operating instructions at landscape installations within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Circulation around any landscape installations that allows for a person to approach from a variety of angles (minimum 800mm x 1300mm).
  • Landscape installations connected to, but setback a minimum of 500mm from any pathway.
  • Minimum 30% luminance contrast between landscape installations and background and adjacent surfaces.
  • Maximum height at top of hedges or similar fences 1050mm above ground level.
  • Raised garden beds that are between 750 - 850mm high with leg clearance underneath a minimum of 600mm high and 750mm deep.
  • Appropriate reach ranges and controls in accordance with Australian Standards.
  • Lighting over any landscape installations to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.

Table 27: Relevant Australian Standards for landscape design

NumberTitle
AS 1428.1 – 2009Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work
AS 1428.2 - 1992Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities
AS 4586 - 2013Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials

Links to other relevant information